Home Estandares metodológicos Generalidades Standard & Guidance for the archaeological investigation and recording of structures
Standard & Guidance for the archaeological investigation and recording of structures PDF Imprimir E-mail
Escrito por Institute of Field Archæologists   
Lunes, 30 de Julio de 2007 11:55
The standard and guidance for archaeological investigation and recording of standing buildings and structures was formally adopted as IFA approved practice at the Annual General Meeting of the Institute held on 11 September 1996. Revised September 2001.

The Standard
A programme of archaeological building investigation and recording will determine, as far as is reasonably possible, the nature of the archaeological resource associated with a specified building, structure or complex. It will draw on existing records (both archaeological and historical sources) and fieldwork. It will be undertaken using appropriate methods and practices which satisfy the stated aims of the project, and which comply with the Code of conduct, Code of approved practice for the regulation of contractual arrangements in field archaeology, and other relevant by-laws of the IFA. The programme will result in the production of drawings, an ordered accessible archive and a report.

Definition of archaeological building investigation and recording

The definition of archaeological building investigation and recording (ABIR) is a programme of work intended to establish the character, history, dating, form and archaeological development of a specified building, structure, or complex and its setting, including buried components, on land, inter-tidal zone or underwater.

Purpose of archaeological building investigation and recording
The purpose of ABIR is to examine a specified building, structure or complex, and its setting, in order to inform:
  • the formulation of a strategy for the conservation, alteration, demolition, repair or management of a building, or structure, or complex and its setting or
  • to seek a better understanding, compile a lasting record, analyse the findings/record, and then disseminate the results.
ABIR may arise:
  • prior to, during and on completion of works of repair, alteration, management or demolition
  • as part of the planning process (within the framework of appropriate national guidance including planning policy guidance and associated legislation and/or development plan policy)
  • in a conservation area, where records of buildings, structures or complexes and their setting (PPG 15 para 2.17; see Appendix 6) may assist the local authority to determine the impact of a given proposal on the character of the conservation area as well as assessing individual buildings and structures of importance
  • under the provisions of the Ecclesiastical Exemption (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Order 1994 relating to places of worship and their internal systems of control, and such similar provisions in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland and the Faculty Jurisdiction System relating to Church of England Churches and arising from the Care of Churches and Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction Measure 1991; or the Care of Cathedrals Measure 1990 and Supplementary Provisions 1994
  • as part of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) (see 3.1.11 below)
  • as the basis for, or in conjunction with, proposals or specifications for work (eg those of an architect, engineer, builder or chartered
  • surveyor) to a building, structure, or complex and its setting
  • as part of an agreed strategy in mitigation of damage or loss to a building, structure or complex and its setting, including a process
  • of controlled demolition or re-erection
  • in conjunction with a programme of archaeological assessment, field evaluation or excavation
  • in connection with the preparation of conservation or management plans by private, local, national or international bodies; for example as part of a total facility management scheme in a museum or related context, or where a building is seen to be at risk
  • within the context of the interpretation and presentation of the site to the public
  • within a programme of research not generated by a specific threat to the archaeological resource
  • within the context of a threat from natural agencies
  • as part of a disaster mitigation plan by way of insurance against loss or damage
ABIR may therefore be commissioned by a number of different individuals or organisations, including local planning authorities, national advisory bodies, government agencies, private owners, developers or their agents, archaeological and architectural researchers, etc


1 Introduction

1.1 This guidance seeks to define best practice for the investigation and archaeological recording of buildings, structures, complexes and their setting, and concomitant reporting, in line with the by-laws of the IFA, in particular the Code of conduct and the Code of approved practice for the regulation of contractual arrangements in field archaeology. It seeks to expand and explain general definitions in the Codes for the practice for fieldwork and reporting.

1.2 This Standard and guidance apply to all types of ABIR, whether generated by academic research, by local interest, through the planning process, by management proposals or by any other proposals which may affect the archaeological resource within a specified area.

1.3 In addition this document seeks to amplify guidance given in appropriate national planning policy guidelines (see Appendix 6), and be compatible with current guidelines issued by regulatory authorities.

1.4 The terminology primarily used follows, PPG 16, PPG 15, PG (Wales) as amended, WO circular 60/96, WO circular 61/96, NPPG 5, PPS 6 and guidance issued by the Association of County Archaeological Officers (ACAO 1993), English Heritage (1991) and Historic Scotland (1996a), with amplifications where necessary. It also seeks to take account of differences in terminology, legal and administrative practice in different parts of the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man. A glossary of terms used can be found in Appendix 1.

1.5 This document provides guidance for work carried out in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man. Although general guidance is given, the document cannot be exhaustive, particularly in its treatment of legislative issues. Archaeologists must ensure they are familiar with the specific legislation and common law pertinent to the area in which they are working. Archaeologists, commissioning bodies and others may find it useful to consult the relevant documents listed in Appendix 6, and can obtain further guidance from the appropriate advisory bodies listed in Appendix 7.

2 Principles: the Code of conduct and other by-laws of the IFA

2.1 An archaeologist undertaking ABIR must adhere to the five principles enshrined in the IFA Code of conduct, and the rules governing those principles:
  1. The archaeologist shall adhere to the highest standards of ethical and responsible behaviour in the conduct of archaeological affairs.
  2. The archaeologist has a responsibility for the conservation of the archaeological heritage.
  3. The archaeologist shall conduct his or her work in such a way that reliable information about the past may be acquired, and shall ensure that the results be properly recorded.
  4. The archaeologist has responsibility for making available the results of archaeological work with reasonable dispatch.
  5. The archaeologist shall recognise the aspirations of employees, colleagues and helpers with regard to all matters relating to employment, including career development, health and safety, terms and conditions of employment and equality of opportunity.
2.2 Further, the Code of approved practice for the regulation of contractual arrangements in field archaeology specifically addresses professional conduct in situations where work is sponsored or commissioned on a contractual basis, especially as part of a development controlled by the planning process. It provides guidance on professional behaviour where more than one individual or body is competing for the same work, and seeks to ensure that the terms for all work are clearly defined, normally by contract.

3 Procedures

3.1 Project identification
3.1.1 The preservation of historic buildings and areas of architectural or historic interest is a fundamental aspect of the Government’s commitment to the environmental stewardship for the effective protection for all aspects of the historic environment (see PPG 15 para 1.1, PG (Wales) para 114, PPS 6 para 6.3). As part of a proposal to repair (see PPG 15 Annex C, 4; WO circular 61/96 paras 103–4; WO circular 1/98, Appendix C; PPS 6 para 6.32), alter or demolish a historic building, it is important to have a record of the structure as found. This may be required by the local authority, or as part of the initial site investigation in conjunction with the architect, engineer, builder or surveyor, or as a record of intervention on completion of a programme of alteration or repair.

3.1.2 Within the planning framework in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man the preservation of archaeological deposits is a material consideration in the planning process. PPG 16, para 18 advises that ‘developers and local authorities should take into account archaeological considerations and deal with them from the beginning of the development control process’ (see also PG (Wales) para 136, PPG 15 para 2.11, NPPG 5 para 14, PPS 6 para 3.4). PPG 16 also advises PPG 15 (para 2.15 and Annex C).

3.1.3 As preservation of archaeological remains is a material consideration in the planning process, local authorities can reasonably request further information about archaeological matters prior to determination, so that ‘an informed and reasonable planning decision can be taken’ (PPG 16 para 21, PG (Wales) para 136 and PPG 15 paras 2.11, 2.15, 2.17, and 3.23, PAN 42 para 24, PPS 6 para 3.13). Such information may be provided through desk-based assessment, field evaluation or ABIR.

3.1.4 PPG 16 includes, ‘..settlements and remains of every period, from the camps of the early hunter-gatherers ... to remains of early twentieth century activities ... places of worship, defence installations, burial grounds, farms and fields and sites of manufacture’ as examples of today’s archaeological landscape. Standing buildings, structures and complexes form part of the archaeological resource and should be treated in an equivalent manner to other parts of the resource, whether standing, buried, inter-tidal or underwater. Where a specified area is the subject of an archaeological assessment, evaluation or excavation, the archaeologist should take into account the nature of standing remains. Conversely where a building, structure or complex is subject to archaeological investigation and recording, the archaeologist should take into account any buried components.

3.1.5 Local authorities may commission surveys of buildings structures or complexes and their setting (PPG 15 para 2.17; WO circular 61/96 paras 103–4; PPS 6 para 6.32). This may be as a basis for drafting Conservation Area Statements, determining the impact of a given proposal on the character of the conservation area, or assessing individual buildings and structures of importance.

3.1.6 Within the planning framework, an appraisal (see Appendix 1 for definition) of the building, structure, or complex and/or its setting will be carried out to determine whether further information is required (ACAO 1993 Appendix B, 13). This appraisal will normally have been undertaken by the planning archaeologist/conservation officer or curator (but may also have been carried out by an applicant and/or the applicant’s agent).

3.1.7 On occasion ABIR may be commissioned in advance of submission of a planning application by the applicant or through their agent or adviser. It should be stressed that in this instance it is appropriate for any proposals for investigation and/or recording to be agreed with the planning archaeologist/conservation officer in advance of intrusive investigation. This is to ensure that the archaeological resource is not needlessly disturbed or damaged, nor inappropriate or excessive cost incurred (Listed Building Consent or Scheduled Monuments Consent may be required for any investigation deemed intrusive to the fabric (PPG 15 para 3.24)).

3.1.8 Under the Care of Cathedrals Measure, a Cathedral archaeological consultant may advise on the desirability of archaeological investigation or recording in connection with proposed works. In the context of an application made to the Cathedrals Fabric Commission, or to a Cathedral Fabric Advisory Committee, these bodies may require investigation as a condition of approval.

3.1.9 Under the Care of Churches Measure 1991 (Schedules 1 and 2), Diocesan Advisory Committees are obliged to review and assess the degree of risk to materials, or of loss to archaeological or historic remains or records, arising from any proposals relating to the conservation, repair or alteration of places of worship, churchyards and burial grounds and the contents of such places. Diocesan Chancellors, following the advice of the Diocesan Advisory Committee, may require archaeological investigation or recording before granting a faculty for proposed works.

3.1.10 Certain developments fall within special regulations or statute different from or additional to the standard planning process (eg some projects initiated by public utilities, statutory undertakers, Crown Commissioners, Ministry of Defence etc). Some of these organisations subscribe to codes of practice (eg water companies) or agreements (formal or informal) with the lead national archaeological bodies to take into consideration the effects of development proposals on the archaeological resource.

3.1.11 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) applies to projects potentially having significant environmental effects (as defined in EC Directive 85/337, and as implemented in the United Kingdom via various Statutory Instruments etc). EIA involves appraisal, desk-based assessments and in many instances field evaluation. The resulting Environmental Statement (ES) will contain recommendations for mitigating impact on the archaeological resource. The agreed mitigation strategies may include the investigation and recording of standing buildings, structures and landscape complexes: such work would not normally take place before a planning inquiry or public local inquiry.

3.1.12 In EIA, ABIR is usually initiated by the developers or through their advisors, rather than the local planning authority. It is still appropriate for any requirements for ABIR to be discussed and agreed with the relevant planning archaeologist/conservation officer or curator or conservation officer in advance, to avoid needless damage to the archaeological resource.

3.1.13 Management proposals may also result in ABIR in order to obtain information in order to promote the environmental or archaeological resource.

3.1.14 Where a Historic Landscape or Registered Park or Garden is the subject of a proposal for restoration, alteration or development, the impact of the work on any standing structures (eg ornaments, follies, bridges, boundaries, etc) is a relevant factor. A record of these features may form part of any proposals.

3.1.15 Prior to and following a decision relating to a planning application, Listed Building Consent application, Conservation Area Consent application, Scheduled Monument Consent application, or other application, conditions may be imposed in order to mitigate the impact of the proposals on the archaeological resource (PPG 15 Annex B, 8). The agreed mitigation strategy may include the investigation and recording of standing buildings, structures and landscape complexes.

3.1.16 Conservation Area statements, environmental audits, local plans and supplementary guidance may all be drafted in the course of the management of historic areas. The recording of the historic buildings, structures, and complexes and their setting may contribute directly to the characterisation of such areas.

3.1.17 In certain circumstances, the extensive recording of buildings or landscapes of a particular type or within a defined geographical area may be appropriate in order to establish the general character or relative significance of the resource. Such surveys may be required in connection with an appraisal for large-scale development, EA or for the purposes of research and/or management.

3.1.18 In a research context, the recording of all or parts of selected structures will have been identified by an archaeologist and will be based on defined research interests. This could include work undertaken through universities, central government agencies, local authorities, museums, independent trusts, amateur organisations and societies, private companies or private groups and individuals.

3.1.19 However it arises an archaeologist should only undertake ABIR which is governed by a written specification or project design (see Appendices 2 and 3) agreed by all relevant parties, as this is the tool against which performance, fitness for purpose, and hence achievement of standards can be measured. In Northern Ireland if a building investigation involves excavation a qualified archaeologist must obtain a licence to undertake the work from the EHS.
3.1.20 The specification or project design is therefore of critical importance.

3.2 Briefs/project outlines, specifications and project designs
3.2.1 The planning and preparation stage of any project is key to its success. This section addresses the initial design stages of an ABIR project, after appraisal has determined the need for further work, in whatever circumstances. The following statements assume that briefs (or project outlines in Scotland) and specifications are issued by those requiring work done (planning archaeologist/conservation officers or curators, developers or their agents etc). Project designs can either be a response to the brief/project outline or specification, or be initiated, for example as part of a research proposal (English
Heritage 1991). This may be summarised as follows.

3.2.2 A brief (or project outline in Scotland) is an outline of the circumstances to be addressed, with an indication of the scope of works that will be required (IFA Code of approved practice for the regulation of contractual arrangements in field archaeology, ACAO 1993 Appendix D, 14–15; Historic Scotland 1996a, 2–6). It does not provide sufficient detail to form the basis for a measurable standard; but it could form the basis for a specification or a project design.

3.2.3 For ABIR within the planning framework, the brief/project outline will usually be prepared by the planning archaeologist/conservation officer or curator and issued by the commissioning body, the developers or their agents to the potential contractor or contractors. The brief/project outline or specification may be prepared by the applicants or their agents, but it is essential that the planning archaeologist/conservation officer or curator has agreed the proposals.

3.2.4 Briefs/project outlines, specifications and project designs must be prepared by suitably qualified and experienced persons, utilising specialist advice where necessary. The person writing the brief should have an understanding of the nature, complexity, and architectural and historical interest of the building; should comprehend the purpose of the proposed work and should be able to assess the potential impact of works upon it.

3.2.5 A specification sets out a schedule of works in sufficient detail for it to be quantifiable, implemented and monitored (ACAO 1993 Appendix D, 15). It should be sufficient to form the basis for a measurable standard.

3.2.6 A project design also sets out a schedule of works in sufficient detail to be quantifiable, implemented and monitored, and therefore also forms the basis for a measurable standard. However, a project design may include additional information which covers contractual details such as staffing levels or cost relevant to the commissioning but not necessarily the monitoring body. Project designs are normally produced by those undertaking the work, and can either be a response to the brief/project outline or specification, or be initiated as part of a research or management proposal independent of the planning framework (see Appendix 3 English Heritage 1991, Appendix 2 Historic Scotland 1996a, 7).

3.2.7 In the case of EIA, the brief/project outline or specification will usually be prepared by the developers or their agents, discussed with the planning archaeologist/conservation officer/curator and issued to tenderers. This may also apply to management proposals.

3.2.8 Proposals for ABIR not prompted by a threat to the archaeological remains will normally take the form of a project design, prepared by the researching archaeologist, and agreed with any commissioning body. If there is no external commissioner there must nevertheless be a written design so that the validity of any models or questions posed can be properly assessed, or so that legal requirements (eg Scheduled Monument Consent) can be properly applied.

3.2.9 Where a brief or specification states that the archaeologist shall base their investigation on drawings or data supplied by others (eg architects, engineers, surveyors or other archaeologists) the archaeologist shall be provided with accurate copies of these drawings or data and assess their fitness for purpose prior to finalising a project design or contractual arrangements.

3.2.10 When preparing a specification or project design an archaeologist must give full consideration to all available practicable methods of ABIR and decide upon the most appropriate and best available to meet the purpose of the work, seeking specialist advice where necessary. The specification or project design must be expressed in sufficiently robust terms and in sufficient detail to withstand challenges on archaeological or legal grounds. The project design should include an agreed collection and disposal strategy for artefacts and ecofacts (see also 3.3.8).

3.2.11 In the planning and execution of destructive investigations where there is no immediate threat to the archaeological resource, the archaeologist must ensure that the investigation causes the minimum damage or destruction necessary to meet the stated research aims of the project.

3.2.12 It follows that some ABIR projects may be properly terminated (with due regard to the future stability of the resource) before the project design is fulfilled, when some significant criterion is met, for example recognition of such an overriding constraint as to render proposed development impractical. In such circumstances the archaeologist should inform the relevant bodies and seek to ensure that appropriate management measures are taken.

3.2.13 The specification or project design must be suited to the project under consideration; any methods advocated must reflect the type of building or structure, and associated buried deposits which are likely to occur. They should not become inflexible irrespective of site and standard templates should therefore be used with care. Other considerations include ‘reasonableness’ in relation to scale of proposal, value for money etc.

3.2.14 Any archaeologist preparing a specification or project design must examine all appropriate sources, and be fully apprised of and abide by all relevant legislation.

3.2.15 When preparing a specification or project design, consideration should be given to the need to include appropriate contingency arrangements with respect to ABIR procedures. In many cases it may prove impossible to meet the project objectives without sufficient flexibility to apply professional judgement in the field. Commissioners and curators should be helped to understand that overly rigid requirements might unavoidably result in a failure to meet archaeological and non-archaeological objectives. Contingency arrangements should not be open-ended but should be properly specified in their own right and reflect prior knowledge of the building or structure, its physical context, and the primary objectives of the project. Contractors must be in a position to justify in detail the eventual implementation of contingency arrangements.

3.2.16 A specification or project design should contain, as a minimum, the following elements:
  • non-technical summary
  • site location (including map) and descriptions
  • context of the project
  • archaeological and historical background
  • general and specific aims of fieldwork
  • legislative requirements
  • field survey/research methodology
  • collection and disposal policy for artefacts and ecofacts
  • arrangements for immediate and long-term conservation of artefacts
  • post-fieldwork methodology
  • report and record drawing preparation
  • publication and dissemination proposals
  • copyright
  • archive deposition
  • timetable
  • staffing
  • Health & Safety considerations
  • monitoring procedures
  • contingency arrangements (if appropriate)
3.2 17 The contents, and different weighting of detail, between specification and project design contents are further amplified in Appendices 3 and 4. Briefs/project outlines and specifications are also discussed in detail in ACAO (1993) and Historic Scotland (1996a).

3.2.18 An archaeologist responding to a tender which includes a brief/project outline or specification may refer to these elements in the project design if they are set out in sufficient detail.

3.2.19 In all cases, the local archaeological curator (and where appropriate, the national agency curator) must be informed of fieldwork in his or her area. Unless there are over-riding reasons against it, local archaeological societies etc should be informed of fieldwork.

The specification or project design should identify relevant data standards for record organisation and content that will be used in information recording systems employed by the project.

3.3 Fieldwork
3.3.1 The specification and/or project design must be agreed by all relevant parties before work commences. All work must conform to the agreed specification or project design. Any variations must be agreed in writing by all relevant parties.

3.3.2 Sufficient and appropriate resources (staff, equipment, accommodation, etc) must be used to enable the project to achieve its aims, the desired quality and timetable, and comply with all statutory requirements. Any contingency elements must be clearly identified and justified. It is the role of the archaeologist undertaking the work to define appropriate staff levels.

3.3.3 All techniques must comply with the relevant legislation and be demonstrably fit for the defined purpose(s). Excavation must be undertaken in accordance with the IFA Standard and guidance for archaeological excavations. In particular, pre-determination invasive investigation and recording (opening up) may require Listed Building Consent (PPG 15 para 3.24) or Scheduled Monument Consent before the main works. Scientific work (eg dendrochronology) should be to approved archaeological standards.

3.3.4 All staff, including subcontractors, must be suitably qualified and experienced for their project roles, and employed in line with IFA by-laws (see Appendix 6). The site director and/or manager should preferably be a corporate member of the IFA.

3.3.5 All staff, including subcontractors, must be fully briefed and understand the work required of them under the specification, and must understand the aims of the project and methodologies. There should be a clear mechanism for communication between the archaeologist and the design team (architect, engineers, etc).

3.3.6 All equipment must be suitable for the purpose and in sound condition and comply with Health and Safety Executive recommendations. It should be noted that some items of equipment are subject to specific statutory controls (diving equipment in particular is subject to the Diving Operations at Work Regulations (see Appendix 6)).

3.3.7 Where the archaeologist has, by instruction or agreement, the power to suspend development or repair work, he or she shall, in exercising such power, follow procedures previously agreed with the other contractors on the site. Within the constraints of the nature of the archaeological resource, the archaeologist shall not cause unreasonable disruption to the maintenance of the work schedules of other contractors.

3.3.8 Unless undertaken as part of a process of controlled demolition, ABIR should not normally result in the loss of historic fabric, including surfaces, of the building, structure or complex. Where the removal of items forms part of the brief/project outline, specification or the project design, the standards and approach to fieldwork, conservation, curation, storage, reporting and ownership are those defined in the IFA Standard and guidance for archaeological excavations. Project collection and discard policies, strategies and techniques must be fit for the defined purpose, and understood by all staff and subcontractors (see also IFA Standard and guidance for the collection, documentation, conservation and research of archaeological materials, IFA Finds Group 1992, Historic Scotland 1994).

3.3.9 Full and proper records (written, graphic, electronic and photographic, as appropriate) should be made for all work, using, for example, pro forma record forms and sheets as applicable (see Appendix 2). All archaeological record drawings should be prepared to a suitable scale, using techniques appropriate to the site and to the aims of the project. The requirements for dimensional accuracy (see Appendix 2) should be set out in the specification or project design, including the level of detail, eg individual stones, brick courses, or outlines of major features. Digital records created as part of the project should comply with specified data standards. An archaeologist must ensure that digital information, paper, and photographic records should be stored in a secure and appropriate environment, and be regularly copied or backed up, and copies stored in a separate location.

3.3.10 The recording of all intrusive works ‘as built’ is seen as an important and integral part of the conservation process and the archaeologist shall be responsible for ensuring that the permanent works records are updated and maintained as part of the site archive.

3.3.11 Before new records are prepared, existing sources of information should be found and examined for their adequacy. Such information may be found in surveys, drawings, photographs, published and unpublished accounts and descriptions and a wide range of other documents relating to a building, structure, complex and its setting (see Appendix 6).

3.3.12 The accuracy of all base drawings supplied by the client or their agent to be used for the purposes of ABIR must conform to the accuracy required for archaeological work (Appendix 2) and must be checked by the buildings archaeologist before investigation and recording work commencing. This must be covered within the specification and project design, and is particularly relevant to programmes of work where the buildings archaeologist may be required by the planning archaeologist/conservation officer or other agencies to use material generated by nonarchaeological agencies as part of a scheme of investigation and conservation.

3.3.13 Health and Safety regulations and requirements cannot be ignored no matter how imperative the need to record archaeological information; hence Health and Safety will take priority over archaeological matters. All archaeologists undertaking fieldwork must do so under a defined Health and Safety Policy. Archaeologists must observe all safe working practices; the Health and Safety arrangements must be agreed and understood by all relevant parties before work commences. Risk assessments must be carried out and documented for every field project, in accordance with the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992. Archaeologists should determine whether field projects are covered by Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994, and ensure that they meet all requirements under the regulations. In addition they must liaise closely with the principal contractors and comply with specified site rules. Archaeologists are advised to note the onerous responsibilities of the role of a planning supervisor. For further guidance refer to the bibliography (Appendix 6).

3.3.14 The archaeologist undertaking ABIR must ensure that he or she has adequate insurance policies, public and employer’s liability and some relevant form of civil liability indemnity or professional indemnity.

3.3.15 On arrival on site, the archaeologist should report to the site manager or other identified representative of the principal contractors or developers and conform to his or her arrangement for notification of entering and leaving the site. The archaeologist should keep a record of the date, time and duration of all visits, the number of staff concerned and any actions taken.

3.4 Post-fieldwork analyses, reports and dissemination
3.4.1 In some instances it may be appropriate to undertake an assessment (see English Heritage 1991) of the requirements for analysis and reporting. In Scotland the primary product of fieldwork is the data structure report (see Annex 3 and Historic Scotland 1996a) with a costed assessment for further fieldwork and or/post-excavation and publication. This report form does not have a precise equivalent elsewhere in the United Kingdom (see Appendix 1). In these circumstances the guidance set out in the IFA Standard and guidance for archaeological excavations should be followed.

3.4.2 Where this is not the case, the analysis and reporting should follow the requirements set out in the specification or project design.

3.4.3 All techniques used must be demonstrably fit for the defined purpose(s), and comply with relevant legislation.

3.4.4 Those carrying out the work should be suitably qualified and experienced, and fully aware of the work required under the specification or project design.

3.4.5 All data generated as a result of the analysis phase should be included in the project archive. Interpretation of data will form part of the publication.

3.4.6 All retained artefacts and ecofacts must be treated and packaged in accordance with the requirements of the recipient museum/repository and national guidelines (Museums and Galleries Commission 1992, Society of Museum Archaeologists 1992, UKIC 1983, 1984, 1988 and 1990).

3.4.7 The site archive must be prepared in accordance with the requirements of the recipient museum/repository and national guidelines (Ferguson and Murray 1997).

3.4.8 The archaeologist must ensure that the results of ABIR are disseminated in a reasonable time through appropriate means.

3.4.9 The publication report should normally contain sufficient data and references to the project archive to permit interpretations to be challenged. Similarly, reports should normally integrate the results of specialist researchers with the site sequence, in order to ensure both that important data are not overlooked, and that an informative and interesting account is produced. The assistance of independent referees may be sought to enhance academic quality.

3.4.10 All reports should be written in a clear, concise and logical style; technical terms should be explained if the report is for a non-specialist audience. Locally relevant and familiar terms should be used wherever possible.

3.4.11 Reports should not include recommendations unless required by the planning archaeologist/conservation officer or project specification/project design. However, it would be reasonable for the client to seek independently the contractor’s opinion. Contractors should be careful to note whether or not such advice is a contractual requirement and that they have suitable qualified personnel and professional indemnity cover to undertake such work.

3.4.12 Reports should contain as a minimum:
  • non-technical summary
  • introductory statements
  • aims and objectives
  • methodology
  • structural description
  • documentary research
  • analysis
  • conclusion
  • supporting drawings, photographs etc
  • supporting data
  • index to/location of archive
  • references
The contents are discussed in more detail in Appendix 5.

Copies of a site summary (English Heritage 1991) or data structure report (see Appendix 1 and Historic Scotland 1996a) must be submitted to the appropriate Sites and Monuments Record, the national archaeological record and, where appropriate, the central government conservation organisation within a reasonable period, normally within six months of completion of the fieldwork or earlier, as may be specified by contractual or grant conditions. This should contain sufficient detail to help researchers to find and access the project archive. A suitable format is set out in Annex 5. In Scotland, a summary interim report must be published in an annual regional or national digest of fieldwork (Historic Scotland 1996f). For the United Kingdom and Isle of Man as a whole, it is considered that fuller publication of the majority of projects is required.

3.4.14 Subject to confidentiality arrangements specified for the project, the archaeologist, either during fieldwork or as soon as possible after its conclusion, should prepare a structured description of the project suitable for publication or inclusion in national and local data archives.

3.5 Monitoring
3.5.1 All work must be monitored by the archaeological organisation undertaking the project and, if appropriate, by the national conservation agency, planning archaeologist/conservation officer and commissioning body, or by their nominated representatives. The guidance below is directed in general at monitors from outside the organisation undertaking the work, but many of the points apply equally to internal monitors or managers.

3.5.2 A monitor should be suitably experienced and qualified or have access to appropriate specialist advice.

3.5.3 Monitoring must be undertaken against the written specification and/or project design.

3.5.4 Monitors, where not representing the commissioning body, should bear in mind the need for flexibility, within the stated parameters, in contractual matters such as staff numbers, budgets or timetable.

3.5.5 All monitoring visits must be documented, and agreed by each party.

Non-compliance with the agreed specification or project design must be pointed out by the monitor to the archaeologist undertaking the work, and their client if appropriate, at the earliest opportunity (see ACAO 1993 Appendix E, 17).

3.5.7 Monitors should be aware of their professional and moral duties regarding Health and Safety, in particular reporting on and advising against bad and unsafe practice.

3.5.8 All monitoring arrangements must be agreed at the outset of the project. The archaeologist undertaking fieldwork must inform the planning archaeologist/conservation officer or other monitor of the commencement of work with reasonable notice.

3.5.9 Although monitors may choose to visit at any time, they should normally inform the archaeologist undertaking the work of any intended visits in advance. Monitors must respect reasonable requests from the client commissioning the work to attend only at pre-arranged times and, if necessary, in the company of the client’s representative.

3.5.10 Any costs for monitoring to be charged by the planning archaeologist/conservation officer or other monitor must be agreed at the outset of the project.

3.6 Archives, ownership and deposition
3.6.1 The requirements for archive preparation and deposition must be addressed at the outset of the project. In Scotland, all excavation archives must be deposited in the National Monument Record for Scotland, which will arrange to copy material to local museums etc.

3.6.2 The recording of buildings, sites or complexes and their setting, unless undertaken as part of a process of controlled demolition or a programme of intrusive archaeological fieldwork, should not normally involve the removal of artefacts from site. Where this does take place, the IFA Standard and guidance for archaeological excavations relating to artefacts should be referred to and the recipient
museum or other repository contacted at the project planning stage. Special arrangements for the deposition of the site archive should be detailed in the specification and/or the project design.

3.6.3 Archive deposition must take account of the requirements of the recipient museum or repository, and the relevant sections of the Re:source: The Council for Museums, Archives and Libraries guidelines relating to the preparation and transfer of archives, or the appropriate national guidelines. A copy of the paper archive should be lodged with the appropriate National Monuments Record, in accordance with its specific requirements.

3.6.4 The site and research archives (English Heritage 1991) generated during fieldwork and post-fieldwork phases should be deposited with the recipient museum in the required format. Artefacts and environmental data form part of these archives. The treatment of human remains will be governed by the relevant legislation and government regulations (see Historic Scotland 1997a).

3.6.5 In the case of Church of England churches and cathedrals and their curtilages, any transfer of finds or records from a church or cathedral is controlled under the Faculty Jurisdiction, the Care of Cathedrals Measure and the Parochial Records Measure.

3.6.6 In England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man, ownership of objects rests with the landowner, except where other law overrides this (eg Treasure Act 1996, Burials Act 1857). The archaeologist undertaking the fieldwork or the planning archaeologist/conservation officer must make this clear at the inception of the project (in the brief/project outline, specification or project design).

3.6.7 It should be noted that different countries have, inter alia, differing reporting procedures for Treasure and differing requirements for finds deposition. Material cannot be exported from the Isle of Man without a licence. In Scotland all finds of archaeological objects must be reported to the Crown, normally via the Treasure Trove Advisory Panel or the Finds Disposal Panel. Contractors are advised to seek specific advice on excavation and export procedures as in some instances licences are required (see Appendix 7).

3.6.8 Except in Scotland, it is the responsibility of the archaeologist undertaking the fieldwork to endeavour to obtain the consent of the landowner in writing for finds donation and deposition with the recipient museum.

3.6.9 Except in Scotland, in the event that the landowner is unwilling for whatever reason to donate the finds to the appropriate recipient museum, the archaeologist undertaking the fieldwork must endeavour to ensure all artefacts and ecofacts are recorded, safely packaged and conserved where appropriate before transfer to the owner and that their location/ownership is stated in the site archive and public record. It should be noted that the owner’s explicit (written) permission is required before entering such personal information in the public record (see inter alia the Data Protection Act 1984).

3.6.10 In Scotland all archaeological artefacts, irrespective of raw material, may be claimed on behalf of the Crown under common law. This applies no matter where, or on whose property, artefacts are found, as noted in paragraph 3.5.3 of the IFA Standard and guidance for the collection, documentation, conservation and research of archaeological materials, all finds must be reported to the Treasure Trove Advisory Panel or, in the case of artefacts from fieldwork funded by Historic Scotland, to the Finds Disposal Panel. Ownership in either case is passed to the museum which receives the finds at the end of the allocation process.

3.6.11 The rules of ownership applicable to material which has come from a vessel (ie all those classified as ‘wreck’) are dealt with under the Merchant Shipping Act 1995 (see Appendix 6). In cases of wreck material the Receiver of Wreck, in the Maritime and Coastguard Agency should be contacted.

3.7 Other considerations
3.7.1 It is advisable that ABIR projects are governed by a written contract or agreement, to which the specification or project design may be attached. Such contracts or agreements should include reference to the defined area of study outlined on a map; to the specification or project design; to conditions for access; programme, methods, timetable for payment; copyright and signed and dated by all parties (Darvill and Atkins 1991) together with other intellectual property arrangements (see Cathedrals Fabric Commission Advisory Note 5).

3.7.2 It is normal practice for both the copyright and ownership of the paper and digital archive from archaeological work to rest with the originating body (the archaeological organisation undertaking the work). The originating body deposits the material with the recipient museum or repository on completion of the contracted works, and normally transfers title and/or licences the use of the records at this stage. These arrangements may be varied by contract, and for the avoidance of doubt it is advisable to include statements on ownership and copyright in a written contract agreement.

3.7.3 Material copied or cited in reports should be duly acknowledged, and all copyright conditions (such as those for Ordnance Survey maps and the National Grid) observed.

3.7.4 All matters relating to publicity must be agreed at the outset of the project between the commissioning body and the archaeological organisation or individual undertaking the project.

3.7.5 The archaeologist undertaking the work must respect the requirements of the client or commissioning body over confidentiality, but the archaeologist must emphasise their professional obligation to make the results of archaeological work available to the wider community within a reasonable time.

Building investigation and recording techniques

ABIR often takes place in conjunction with, or as a basis for, the work of other professionals eg local authority planners, architects, landscape architects, engineers, surveyors or building and architectural historians and other interpretative agencies. In undertaking buildings investigation and recording archaeologists must be prepared to respect the needs in terms of terminology and conventions of other professionals, and present their information in a manner which may be readily understood by others.

Where archaeological recording is undertaken as a basis for repair or alteration, drawings should be prepared at an accepted scale and accuracy and in a format that is suitable for use by other professionals or on site. Conventions and layout should be readily understood by other associated professionals or clients. Detail of the project, contractor, scale, height values, compass points, National Grid Reference (and any museum site accession code), date, author and title should be noted on each drawing and site record sheet. The following types of drawings and written records may be appropriate to a programme of ABIR

Analytical drawing
Based on suitable scaled base drawing or photogrammetric plot but showing relative phasing and stratigraphic analysis of the structure, for example on changes in materials, butt joints, key joints, mortar, surface treatments or other constructional details. May comprise sections, elevations, details and plans.


Drawing designed to illustrate or explain a selected detail of construction (eg jointing), alteration (eg complex junction), technology or function. May be plan, section, elevation, axonometric, isometric or cut-away. Scale is normally larger than that for base drawings.

Dimensioned sketch
Drawing, not to scale but including dimensioned information. Could comprise plan, cross- section, elevation, and detail.

Interpretive drawing
Drawings produced to illustrate phasing, development, analysis, function or use of a structure, building or complex. These may not necessarily be to scale and may be axonometric, isometric or cutaway as well as plans, sections or elevations. May include reconstructions of lost features, functions, machinery or form.

Rectified photography
The process of obtaining dimensioned information from a single photograph, which is usually aligned parallel to the wall plane. A distance measured on the wall plane then provides scale. Computerised methods can reduce the need for accurate alignment.

Scaled base drawing as existing
Existing survey showing structure as found, including fixtures, fittings, features, materials, and constructional details. May show individual stones, brick courses, timbers or general form of building. May comprise section, elevation, detail, and plan. Below ground remains or associated features should be shown where relevant.

Site survey
Scaled survey showing buildings, structures or complexes in their local setting, including significant locational features, such as plot boundaries, undertaken by hand-measured survey or by electronic data collection.

Additional methods available:
  • ground based remote sensing
  • dendrochronology
  • magnetometry
  • photogrammetric plot
  • photogrammetry
  • resistivity
  • sample collection

Contents of a report

The level of detail required in a report will depend upon the requirements of the brief, the project design and upon the professional judgement of the individual contractor. A report might contain as a minimum the following elements, depending on the nature of the site.

Non-technical summary
This should outline in plain, non-technical language, the principal reason for the work, its aims and main results, and should include reference to authorship and commissioning body.

This should include the scope of the project, circumstances and dates of fieldwork, acknowledgements and a brief archaeological, historical, topographical or technical background to the site.

Site description
Description of the structure, building or complex as found including archaeological interpretation of sequence, construction or function, use of materials. The description should use terminology appropriate to the architecture of the period. The results of any associated below-ground archaeological work should be incorporated into the site description.

Aims and objectives
These should reflect the aims of the brief, specification or project design.

The methods used, including detail of any variation to the agreed project design or specification should be set out carefully, and explained as appropriate.

Documentary research

Presentation of map, pictorial, documentary or other research, setting out implications of source for understanding the archaeology of the site and its ability to inform.

Analysis and interpretation
Analysis and interpretation of the site, drawing together documentary, archaeological, technical, dating and other sources including a summary of specialist contributions in a description of the development and function of the site through time. Development or other impact (if appropriate) Implications for the archaeology of the site of any development, repair, demolition or management proposals.

A summary of the results of the work, placing the site in its context (local, regional, national, international, archaeological, historical or technical in terms of setting, origin, purpose, form, construction, design, materials or status). The section should include a statement on the reliability of the sources or any limitation imposed on the work.
Recommendations on further work may also be required, but in most cases within the planning framework this will be the responsibility of the relevant planning archaeologist/conservation officer or curator.

These should consist of essential technical and other details to support the conclusions, and may include for example, a copy of the project design, a table of individual archaeological contexts (if used or gazetteer of site components), details of supporting technical or dating work, specialist contributions in full, summaries of sources, copies of documents, project archive catalogue, list of consultees, index to site codes.

Illustrations including modern location map, site survey, as-found drawings, detail drawings, interpretative drawings, analytical drawings, record photographs and copies of relevant historic sources (e.g. historic OS, tithe and estate maps, historic illustrations). These may be within text or at the end, or where needed for site purposes in an attached pocket. They should be clearly numbered and easily referenced.

A list of all primary and secondary sources, including maps and illustrations if not referenced elsewhere.


Contents, disclaimers.

Sources of historical and documentary information

Archaeological and buildings databases

Source type
Archaeological excavation and survey records, National Monuments Records, National Buildings Records, regional and local Sites and Monuments Records, Listed Building lists, Scheduled Ancient Monuments lists, regional inventories, public and private collections and archives.
Source location
National heritage bodies, Royal Commissions, Local Authorities, museums, archaeological trusts and units, universities, Ordnance Survey, local archaeological and historical societies and other professional and amenity groups interested in buildings.

Historical documents
Source type
Charters, registers, manuscript collections (secular and ecclesiastical), deeds, wills, probates and inventories, estate papers, electoral rolls, rating and taxation records, contemporary unpublished accounts, diaries, building records, plans and elevations, published accounts, industrial investigations.
Source location
Public Record Office, parish records, diocesan and cathedral record offices, county and district record offices, estate and private collections, district and county development control records, and other local authority administrative records, museums, national and local libraries, study centres, press and other publication libraries, Ordnance Survey, British Library, Lambeth Palace Library, the Church of England Record Centre and the record offices and libraries of other religious denominations, naval and military archives.

Cartographic, pictorial documents
Source type
Early maps, prints, drawings, paintings, photographs, tithe apportionment maps, enclosure award maps, estate maps and plans, Ordnance Survey maps, Admiralty charts, property plans with deeds, probates and inventories and for taxation and fire insurance purposes.
Source location
As for documents above and including the British Library, National Monuments Records, topographical collections, the Victoria and Albert Drawings Collection, the Bodleian Library, the RIBA drawings collection, the Irish Architectural Archive, the National Libraries of Scotland and Wales, the Manx Museum

Aerial photographs
Source type
Aerial photographs.
Source location
National Registers of aerial photographs (including RAF and Ordnance Survey flights), museum collections, national heritage bodies, Sites and Monuments Records, university collections, private collections (in some instances a flight may be commissioned as part of the study).

Geotechnical information
Source type
Borehole and test pit logs, site surveys, geological maps, offshore surveys.
Source location
Client geosurvey records, Ordnance Survey, British Standards Institute, British Geological Survey publications, commercial offshore survey companies, university oceanographic departments.

Secondary and statutory sources
Source type
Regional and period archaeological studies, landscape studies, local knowledge, dissertations, policy statements and research frameworks, legislative documents, European Directives, Local Development Plans, Unitary Development Plans, Constraints Maps.
Source location
Libraries, local landowners, local and national museums, universities, academic journals, monographs and other publications, local archaeological and historical societies. In Scotland, additional sources of information are the Sasines Register and the Records of the Dean of Guild Courts which can be found at the Registers of Scotland and local authorities respectively.

Contents of a data structure report

A data structure report is a requirement in Scotland. Its contents are listed here for guidance. The level of detail required will depend on the quantity and complexity of data.

A data structure report should be produced speedily after each fieldwork exercise or season of fieldwork. It provides a structure for the records of an ABIR, and is the basis for further analysis and final archiving of the site archive. It includes:

1 Lists of data
  • context numbers with brief descriptions
  • other written documents
  • plans, elevations and other illustrations
  • photographs (annotated)
  • small finds lists, with context numbers and brief descriptions of important objects
This list is copied to the Queen’s and Lord Treasurer’s Remembrancer and forms the basis for allocating finds to a museum; environmental archaeology samples, with a description and explanation of why they were taken.

2 A narrative account of the site sequence explaining
  • the relationship between groups of contexts
  • important finds
  • provisional interpretations
  • sequence diagrams, sketch plans and other diagrams as required
  • environmental archaeology samples
In Scotland, the data structure report is accompanied by a site summary intended for publication in Discovery and excavation in Scotland published by the Council for Scottish Archaeology. For further information see Historic Scotland 1996b, 9.

Recommendations for digital archives

Projects vary in their organisation and implementation, even where standards and best practice are employed. This annexe thus provides a checklist for the types of data to be included in the digital archive of a building investigation. Where those data do not exist they need not be created. Where they are not available in digital format, they need not be digitised. The archive has two components: the minimum archive is the index level record; with other materials as appropriate. Thus, the archive should consist of:

1. Index level record
An index level record for the investigation conforming to relevant standards. The exact content and structure of that record should be developed in consultation with relevant heritage agencies and identified in the project design. Local circumstances will dictate form of delivery though digital supply should be preferred, in order that the record may be appended to existing databases without the need for manual data entry.

2. Other associated data sets
Other associated data sets should be included in the digital archive, such as project specification documents, project design documents, a desk-based assessment report (where this has not already been archived), and a Building or standing structure report. Analytical drawings, rectified photographs, interpretative or detailed drawings, survey data or details illustrations should also be supplied if available in digital format. The precise composition of the archive will vary with local circumstances.

Data creation

All data created as part of a project design should follow standards and guidelines for good practice. Data that is being deposited in a digital archive and should be supplied in a form consistent with that archive’s deposition guidelines.

Further guidance on the management and archiving of digital data can be obtained from the Archaeology Data Service, summarised in part in the Guide to Good Practices series. “Digital Archives from Excavation and Fieldwork: Guide to Good Practice” and “CAD: Guide to Good Practice” are the most immediately relevant volumes for building surveys, though others may be more appropriate to the needs of specific projects. Contact details for the Archaeology Data Service are included in Appendix 7.

Generals appendices to standards (1 to 7) can be downloaded form our server [PDF] (in english).
Última actualización el Martes, 15 de Septiembre de 2009 04:55

Escribir un comentario

Código de seguridad

^  top