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Standards and norms

The section of standards seeks to open discussion on ways that archaeology should be developed in Ecuador. What is presented in this section are draft proposals made by some people and institutions, but the zeal is that presented in this forum, these proposals will be enriched. We have two documents at the beginning, one prepared by the ESPOL, and the other by the USFQ. These documents can at best, be complementary. We would encourage readers to navigate between documents, and send suggestions for improvements. In the end, we will have a document that can be presented to the INPC, or any institution that control the protection of Cultural Heritage in Ecuador. We also invite you to visit our forum on standards and methodology.

Andean Centre of Underwater Archaeology PDF Print E-mail
Written by Peter Eeckhout   
Monday, 03 June 2013 04:47
There are no translations available at this moment. Thanks for your comprehension.

The English version of the Andean Centre of Underwater Archaeology website is now on line, direct access through

Building an Emergency Plan: A Guide for Museums and Other Cultural Institutions PDF Print E-mail
Written by The Getty Conservation Institute   
Tuesday, 25 September 2012 10:26

Building an Emergency Plan provides a step-by-step guide that a cultural institution can follow to develop its own emergency preparedness and response strategy.This workbook is divided into three parts that address the three groups generally responsible for developing and implementing emergency procedures – institution directors, emergency preparedness managers, and departmental team leaders – and discuss the role each should play in devising and maintaining an effective emergency plan. Several chapters detail the practical aspects of communication, training, and forming teams to handle the safety of staff and visitors, collections, buildings, and records.

Emergencies covered include natural events such as earthquakes or floods, as well as human-caused emergencies, such as fires that occur during renovation. Examples from the Barbados Museum and Historical Society, the Museo de Arte Popular Americano in Chile, the Mystic Seaport Museum in Connecticut, and the Seattle Art Museum show how cultural institutions have prepared for emergencies relevant to their sites, collections, and regions.

Download the Guide [PDF]

Safeguarding Archaeological Information PDF Print E-mail
Written by English Heritage   
Saturday, 28 May 2011 04:02

The aim of this document is to provide guidance for the management of archaeological information and archive throughout the course of a project and thus protect them should they be threatened with loss.

A likely instance of this in the present climate is that of a contractor going into liquidation and becoming unable to complete archaeological projects to the archive transfer stage. English Heritage commissioned a survey of current practice that has informed the formulation of this guide. It is intended that this document will be circulated to all archaeological practitioners, especially those involved in development control, archaeological contractors and curators of archive repositories. It is hoped that this guide will enable them to work together in the best interests of the archaeological information that is currently being recovered.

We hope that this initial publication will engender further best practice suggestions and 'lessons learned' experiences which will inform the production of updated guidance in due course.

Download the [PDF]

Running a Museum: A Practical Handbook PDF Print E-mail
Written by ICOM - UNESCO   
Sunday, 22 May 2011 03:46

The Handbook aims at providing an overview of the key aspects of museum management.

Each chapter of the Handbook provides practical guidelines and entry points for discussion. The main text in each chapter is accompanied by both supplementary information, such as key technical data and standards, suggestions for practical exercises, and discussion topics for internal use. Whether used by an individual professional, a small study group, participants in a training or staff development programme or exercise, or by the entire staff of a museum, it is a functional, constructive and user-friendly tool.

The following subjects are covered in the publication:

  • The Role of Museums and the Professional Code of Ethics
  • Collections Management
  • Inventories and Documentation
  • Care and Preservation of Collections
  • Display, Exhibits and Exhibitions
  • Caring for the Visitor
  • Museum Education
  • Museum Management
  • Managing People
  • Marketing
  • Museum Security, including Disaster Preparedness
  • Illicit Traffic issues

Download the Handbook [PDF]
How to develop Training Programmes using the Package?

Running a Museum: A Trainer's Manual PDF Print E-mail
Written by ICOM - UNESCO   
Sunday, 22 May 2011 03:39

This Manual is intended to supplement the Handbook by indicating ways in which the many different practical examples and exercises offered in the Handbook can be used in various training and staff development programmes.

These activities include formal museum and heritage training programmes, short courses and workshops on particular themes, and for internal staff training and development programmes within the museum or related institution or service itself.

The intended users would be those organizing, running or contributing to training and staff development programme and who use Running a Museum: A Practical Handbook as a core text. However, professionals and students using the main text largely or entirely on their own as part of their self-learning, would also find it of value.

Within the Manual, worksheets are included for copying and distribution by trainers to course or programme participants. Each worksheet is built around one of the key practical "boxes" or exercises published in the Handbook, but with question and answer spaces for the course participants to write a summary of their decisions or other responses.

In addition to the subjects covered by the Handbook itself, and with special emphasis on building training programmes around Running a Museum, the Manual will begin by describing different approaches and techniques in teaching and learning in relation to museum work, and the practical aspects of organizing and delivering training and staff development.

Download the Manual [PDF]
How to develop Training Programmes using the Package?

Last Updated on Sunday, 22 May 2011 03:57
Conservación y exposición de los restos humanos en los museos PDF Print E-mail
Written by Gaëtan Juillard   
Thursday, 03 September 2009 10:30
There are no translations available at this moment. Thanks for your comprehension.

¿Como conservar y presentar al público objetos sagrados y de culto asi como restos humanos? Fue la pregunta del último simposio internacional del Museo del Quai Branly (Paris, Francia), los 22 y 23 febrero 2009.

Dentro de los temas abordados durante el simposio, destacamos esta preguntas: ¿En que medida restos humanos pueden ser considerados como personas o individuos? ¿Quien tiene propriedad sobre estos restos? ¿Como arbitrar intereses contradictorios alrededor de estos vestigios? ¿Bajo cual condiciones se pueden conservar y poner en valor?

Destacados directores de museos, representantes de países de donde provienen estas colecciones, políticos, juristas, representantes de organizaciones internacionales y gubernamentales, filósofos y científicos (arqueologos, historiadores, etnológos, antropológos físicos y prehistorianos) han abordados estas inquietudes.

Visitar la página del simposio
Descargar Actos del simposio (en francés) [PDF]
Descargar Actos de la primera mesa redonda (en francés) [PDF]
Descargar Actos de la segunda mesa redonda (en francés) [PDF]
Descargar el discurso de apertura (en francés) [PDF]
Descargar el discurso de clausura (en francés) [PDF]
Last Updated on Friday, 02 October 2009 04:05
GIS Best Practices PDF Print E-mail
Written by Gaëtan Juillard   
Thursday, 30 July 2009 06:45
There are no translations available at this moment. Thanks for your comprehension.

Siguiendo con los Sistema de Información Geográfica (GIS), quiero comunicarle que ESRI acaba de sacar un e-book gratis (en inglés) sobre las practicas adecuadas de manejo de GPS y GIS en el amplio ámbito de la arqueología. El libro presenta un descripción de un GIS así como varios ejemplos prácticos reales.

Entre los temas abordado por el libro :
  • What Is GIS?
  • Protecting Archaeological Resources During an Oil Spill in Washington State
  • Archaeology, Genealogy, and GIS Meet at Columbia Cemetery
  • Reconstructing Aztec Political Geographies
  • A Cost-Effective Approach to GPS/GIS Integration for Archaeological Surveying
  • U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Administers Archaeological Sites with GIS
  • Bureau of Land Management's Cultural Resource Database Goes Digital
  • Modeling Archaeological Sensitivity in Vermont with GIS
  • Understanding Past and Future Land Use

También les comunico la página de la librería de e-books de la colección Best Practice, editado por ESRI así como un blog (en inglés) relacionado a los GIS y sus aplicaciones científicas: GIS and Science; y una selección de enlaces de blog de aplicaciones de los GIS en inglés y en español.
Last Updated on Tuesday, 15 September 2009 03:47
IFRAO Standard Scale PDF Print E-mail
Written by Robert Bednarik   
Monday, 26 May 2008 13:19


The IFRAO (International Federation of Rock Art Organi sations) Standard Scale was first pro posed in IFRAO Report No. 6 (Bednarik 1991). Consultation of researchers and various specialists in the following years has led to progressive evolu tion of the design (cf. Rock Art Research 8: 156) until it was finalised in 1993.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 23 September 2009 10:48
Tips for conducting illustrations PDF Print E-mail
Written by Documents d'archéologie française   
Monday, 10 December 2007 20:59
Documents on paper or transparencies
(Drawing paper, paper couché, photo paper, copies, bromide, tapes film ...)
  • Originals and format : for a good quality reproduction, it is strongly advised to submit original drawings. They must be conducted in a format less than or equal to 29.7 x 42 cm.
  • Sharpness : drawings delivered must be “cleansed” delete legends, or drawn annotations useless. Avoid bent, which can trace during the digitilización.
  • Mechanical screens : prohibits their use because of the appearance of shimmering effects irreversible after digitization and reduction. Place preferably frames in a calque overlay drawing background. They will be carried out later with Illustrator.
  • Typography : or is of good quality, uniform in the set of drawings and adapted to the reduction, or can be located in a calque overlay on the background image of a photocopy, it will be repeated then digitally.
  • Features and details of the illustration : they must remain legible after reducing formats justification for the DAF (full page: 170 x 257.5 mm; figures: 50, 80, 110, 170 mm wide). To check, make a photocopy these reductions.
  • Pictures : provide slides or Ekta (preferably original), or BN tirajes quality.
Last Updated on Tuesday, 15 September 2009 03:56
Technical Brief 6: Kentucky Archæological Registery: Landowner Participation in Site Preservation PDF Print E-mail
Written by A. Gwynn Henderson - Kentuty Nature Preserves Commission   
Wednesday, 07 November 2007 17:17

Published by the DOI Departmental Consulting Archeologist/NPS Archeology Program, National Park Service, Washington, DC, October 1989 (Revised 1991).

Laws directed at protecting archeological sites frequently target those located on State or federally owned property, but many sites are located on private property. These sites represent a significant portion of the identified sites in many States, meaning that large numbers of our nation's archeological resources are not protected.

The Kentucky Archaeological Registry was created to address this problem. Modeled on The Nature Conservancy's nationally successful program for protecting privately owned natural areas, the Registry represents a way to involve private landowners in the protection of Kentucky's significant archeological sites. Landowners are asked to make a commitment to preserve and protect their sites and are presented awards in recognition of these commitments. In addition, they are educated about their sites' significance, provided management assistance, and informed about stronger preservation options available to them.

Following the introduction, this publication describes the objectives of the Kentucky Archaeological Registry, how a landowner can participate in the program, and the steps in the landowner contact/site registration process. Next, the results of the Kentucky Archaeological Registry's first two years of operation are discussed, and the Registry's successes are evaluated. Finally, the role landowner contact/site registration can play as part of a broader site protection and preservation program is discussed.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 15 September 2009 06:46
Technical Brief 16: The Civil Prosecution Process of the Archæological Resources Protection Act PDF Print E-mail
Written by Sherry Hutt, Superior Court, Arizona   
Monday, 05 November 2007 14:47

This Technical Brief details the procedure for pursuing a civil violation of ARPA through the administrative law process. Its purpose is to provide a succinct blueprint for use by land managing agencies when civil prosecution under the law is the desired option. Note that in the event of any discrepancy between this Technical Brief and applicable ARPA regulations, the regulations control. Citations in this brief will depart from the standard American Antiquity style in favor of the legal citation format used by lawyers and Administrative Law Judges.


The Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (ARPA)1, as amended, provides a means to assertively protect the ancient and historic remains of the cultures that have inhabited Federal and Indian lands. The Act provides for criminal and civil penalties against those who excavate, remove, damage, or otherwise alter or deface archeological resources, or attempt to do so, without a permit.2 ARPA with its amendments and accompanying Uniform Regulations offer agencies flexible alternatives to employ in the preservation of resources under their protection.3

Criminal enforcement of ARPA has become an active part of the repertoire of agencies across the United States.4 It is not unusual for vehicles and the tools of the violation to be subjected to seizure in connection with the criminal prosecution.5 In contrast, civil prosecution under ARPA has been rarely and only recently pursued.6 The purpose of this technical brief is to provide a familiarity with the civil provisions of ARPA that may expand its future use.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 15 September 2009 06:35
Technical Brief 8: Revegetation: The Soft Approach to Archeological Site Stabilization PDF Print E-mail
Written by Robert M. Thorne   
Wednesday, 10 October 2007 18:54

Published by the DOI Departmental Consulting Archeologist/NPS Archeology Program, National Park Service, Washington, DC, September 1990 (Revised March 1992).


This Technical Brief is the third in a series that addresses the issues of archeological site stabilization and protection. Each Technical Brief in the series describes a potentially useful technique for maintaining the integrity of an archeological deposit. This series, and the complementary Technical Notes assembled by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station in its Archeological Sites Protection and Preservation Notebook, are designed to provide baseline data for the initiation of site stabilization projects. The use of vegetation always should be considered a viable means of site protection when developing a set of stabilization alternatives.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 15 September 2009 06:39
Technical Brief 12: Site Stabilization Information Sources PDF Print E-mail
Written by Robert M. Thorne   
Wednesday, 10 October 2007 18:31

Published by the DOI Departmental Consulting Archeologist/NPS Archeology Program, National Park Service, Washington, DC, December 1991.

This Technical Brief is the fourth in a series that addresses the issues of archeological site stabilization and protection. Each of the previous Technical Briefs in the series has described a potentially useful technique for maintaining the integrity of an archeological deposit. This one is about information exchange, which is part of the goal to foster interaction among governmental agencies, professionals, and the private sector. It is not a comprehensive guide to stabilization information, the several bibliographies that are available for different disciplines are better suited for that purpose. It also is not a substitute for contacting the agencies and professionals who have completed successful stabilization projects for detailed information. Rather, it is meant to provide a ready reference to sources that regularly collect and distribute information relevant to archeological site stabilization. These sources can be useful starting points in stabilization project development as well as important references for comparing the merits of appropriate alternatives. It also should encourage those who are planning projects to seek a wide range of multidisciplinary data, since other professions often are not aware of how important their knowledge and skills can be to preservation of non-renewable archeological resources.

Last Updated on Monday, 20 December 2010 07:09
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